Bibliography and Cross-Reference Citations in EOLSS Contributions

The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) is a source document for knowledge, as well as a document that contains discussions encompassing the interactions and interplay in human activities, and associated infrastructure. As a source book for students, researchers, and professional practitioners concerned with integrated approaches to sustainable development through management of natural and human engineered resources, the EOLSS will satisfy five critical needs:

1. Thematic presentation of knowledge in a manner that will be very helpful both for the development of initial as well as long term understanding of relevant multidisciplinary aspects of life support systems.

2. Comprehensive coverage of the subject matter, from the origin to the current state, including significant contemporary advances, and future perspectives.

3. Lucid, pedagogical, and authoritative presentation of information on science,technology, engineering, social sciences, humanities and management, assisting decision-making as well as for technology transfer between nations and different regions of the world.

4. Suitability for self study, through the presentation of a number of high level and overview articles in each of the major areas associated with the encyclopedia that guide readers to specific detailed articles.

5. Ability to be used by those with diverse needs in science, technology, and policy areas, through the provision of carefully structured presentations, indices and overview articles, as well as the ability to access multiple perspective knowledge concerning life support issues, especially those involving water, energy, environment, food and agriculture.

These objectives will be facilitated by the publication of EOLSS on the Web and in CD-ROM format, which permits a higher degree of interactivity. They will also benefit greatly from the inclusion of a comprehensive Study Guide and by appropriate use of bibliographies and cross-references.

There are three basic types of citations commonly used in literary works:

1. reference citations to other works in the external literature;

2. cross-reference citations to other parts of the present work, and

3. bibliographic citations that are annotated to list external sources where interested readers might pursue related subject matter, or dig deeper into a particular item.

A few encyclopedias use all three forms of citations. Since the EOLSS is intended to be useful to a wide audience, and to be as self-contained as possible, it has been decided to encourage use of citation forms 2 and 3, and not to allow citations of form 1. It is felt that the latter are more appropriate to a research journal where it is necessary to avoid repeating such items as detailed derivations that may be found in other papers in the literature. This editorial judgment is necessarily applicable to all writings in the EOLSS. Many encyclopedias, especially those intended for multidisciplinary readership, take precisely this approach of providing citations in forms 2 and 3 only. Thus, you are strongly encouraged to include cross-references to other parts of the Theme and the EOLSS as a whole. Cross-references link parts of knowledge that are related but placed in different writings and thereby integrate the EOLSS body of knowledge. You are also asked to provide an Annotated Bibliography listing literary works on important related subject matter. Significant Websites may also be listed after the bibliography, but please limit this list to no more than five.

The policy of EOLSS is as follows. A statement does not require a reference if it expresses a fact that can be found in any standard textbook or in any of the well-known treatises on the subject. Many readers of the EOLSS will be very interested in the initial sources of knowledge, especially those discussions that go beyond what might be called "common knowledge", and those which cannot be verified by reference to commonly available sources. These items are appropriate for your annotated bibliography. Often, subjects that you are discussing will also be considered in other contributions within the EOLSS. It is certainly desirable to include these within your writing as cross-references. One of the many duties of the in-house editors will be to look for, enhance, and verify internal cross-references.

The purpose of the annotated bibliography is to serve as a guide to related sources of background reading. All recent worthy books that deal with the subject can be included in the annotated bibliography. Journal articles of significance and relevance may also be worthy of inclusion. You may wish to make such comments in your bibliography as [Exceptionally fine reference] or [Contains extensive bibliography] as these remarks can be very helpful. Only relatively widely available published material should be cited. Personal communications should never be cited. Unpublished work should only be cited if they are ‘in press’, or to be published by the time that the EOLSS appears, so that a full citation may be included at page proof time. Some specific guidelines follow:

1.An Annotated Bibliography is required in your contribution. This is a listing of sources external to EOLSS that are relevant to the subject of the contribution. The Annotated Bibliography is included primarily to help the reader by suggesting items for further study. To a lesser extent, it is used to acknowledge earlier seminal contribuions, especially textbook writings. Annotations are intended to provide precise information on the nature and importance of of the items cited. Typical annotations might be:[This gives an elementary exposition of the subject matter], [This work includes some interesting case studies], [This was the first discussion of …].

2. Bibliographic items should not be cited in the body of your contribution. This would change a bibliographic citation to a reference citation. The important reason behind this policy is to discourage authors from simply referring to other sources without presenting the substance that is necessary to make each contribution and the EOLSS, as a whole, reasonably self-contained. Users should feel that they have become informed about the subject in some depth, depending upon the hierarchical level of the writing. If external reference citations were allowed, then authors might be tempted to keep telling the reader more about where the subject matter is available in the external literature, rather than presenting the basic principles and practices necessary to understand an argument. We feel that this is likely to be frustrating and disappointing to the reader since it makes the writing directive rather than instructive.

3. Cross references to other contributions within the EOLSS are strongly encouraged in your contribution: These serve as links to items in any part of the EOLSS body of knowledge. Cross-references enhance the integrity of the body of knowledge and assure the reader of the availability of related information within the EOLSS itself. With good cross-referencing, EOLSS can be rendered a truly independent and stand-alone source of knowledge. A contribution may require supporting knowledge and/or further elaboration that is not possible within the contribution itself, so that a cross reference is needed to other locations within the EOLSS. The distinction between external reference citations and internal cross-reference citationss is shown in the following illustration.

4. The details of sources external to the EOLSS are not to be cited as references in the body of your contribution. There shall be no such references and citations in the EOLSS contributions. Where needed, direct quotes may be identified in the running text itself, without citation in parentheses, such as "This may be summarized by the statement of Joan Smith in her address to the Assembly in 1986 "quotation."


Cross-referencing to other contributions within the EOLSS will be an important feature of EOLSS contributions. Every Honorary Theme Editor and all his/her authors will have the content information as it relates to their theme, so that cross-references to writings in the same Theme can be made with the precise titles. The cross-reference should appear in the most appropriate place within the text, and should not include the hierarchical number. Please insert the precise titles in appropriate places within the body of your contribution and highlight them in yellow background so that they can be easily noticed for editing and linking.

An example of how such a cross-reference should appear, is as follows:


… In total, CO2 emissions from the transportation sector have grown from 5.5 to 5.9 tonnes per capita in U.S.A. between 1973 and 1996, and from 4.3 to 4.6 in Canada (see Environmental Pollution from Road Vehicles, Trains and Aircraft).


If the cross-referencing is to contributions in a Theme other than yours, you are requested to insert suggestions for cross-references to relevant subjects (or subject domains) at the end of a section or subsection within the contribution in normal font (no italics). Please again highlight such items in yellow, as follows:


1. ……………….


… Reductions of fossil fuel use also reduces health threatening urban and regional smog and release of toxins such as mercury. It is important to note that the balance of costs and benefits in this definition are for society as a whole, and not for individual emitters. Many businesses have dismissed "no regrets" measures as illusory since they consider the issue from the perspective only of the bottom line for the company, and not the balance sheet for society as a whole. The need for government intervention to capture "no regrets" options is obvious.

(see: greenhouse gases, urban pollution, heavy metal pollution)

4.2 Transportation: Unsustainable Trends ……………………… ___________________________________________________________________

The editorial department of EOLSS will use these clues and will replace them with the precise titles of the most appropriate contributions. The user of the EOLSS will be able to click on the cross-reference items and directly access the desired contribution.

HTEs are requested to circulate this note among all their authors and advise them on these aspects. This information is also being placed on the EOLSS website.

Maintained by Eolss  Publishers Co. Ltd, © Copyright 2001 Eolss Publishers Co. Ltd.